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The Open Science Glossary follows the principles of transparency, open access, reuse of information and the use of web tools. The definitions presented are the responsibility of numerous official and scientific entities, identified with a link to the original information. In the collection of information, content in digital format was privileged. Association relationships between expressions are presented and, whenever possible, the original expression is safeguarded. This is a work-in-progress project, so more and new content is welcome through the


Glossary put together by:

Maria da Luz Antunes  

Lisbon Higher School of Health Technology (ESTeSL) – Lisbon Polytechnic Institute (IPL)

APPsyCI – Applied Psychology Research Center Capabilities & Inclusion (ISPA – University Institute)



Open Accessopen access

Making academic or scientific literature available on the Internet, allowing any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or reference the full text of the documents. (


Access to the document is direct and immediate, with no obstacles. Open access means the online availability, without access restrictions, of academic and/or scientific literature. It covers communications in conferences, reports, theses and dissertations, articles, book chapters, etc., allowing any user, anywhere in the world, to download, read, print, search, at the distance of a click. (


It means making academic literature freely available on the Internet, allowing any user to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search or link to the full text of these documents, index them, use their data in software or use them for any legal purpose, without any barriers other than financial, technical or legal. Limitation on reproduction and distribution and copyright in these domains should give the author full powers over the integrity of his work and the right to be properly recognized and cited. It can also suit theses, books, book chapters, monographs and other content. (


Also called Open Access, it refers to access to scientific literature in electronic format, in particular to peer-reviewed journal articles, without price and permission barriers. The three main defining documents of Open Access are the Budapest, Bethesda and Berlin Declarations. (

Golden Open Accessto seeVia Dorada

Free Open Accessfree OA

The document is available for reading, free of charge, although its reuse is still restricted, for example by copyright – All Rights Reserved. (

Free Open AccessFree OA

The article is made available under an open license, allowing it to be shared and reused, depending on the license used. (

Embargoed AccessEmbargo Access

It means that the content is unavailable for a limited period of time, after which it will be made available in open access and without restrictions. (

Closed Accessclosed access

This type of access is objectively the opposite of open access. Direct and immediate access to the document is not allowed (only the administrator of the institutional repository will have access). (

Public AccessPublic Access

In Canada and the United States, increasing access in digital format to publicly funded research results is commonly referred to as public access rather than open access. The term Open Access is reserved for access gained through the golden lane. Public access can have a green or gold approach. (

Restricted accessRestricted Access 

It means that direct and immediate access is only allowed to a restricted group of users, and direct and immediate access to the full content of the document is not allowed to the general public. Open access to the document can be defined, for example, for a group of users in the institution's domain (access control validated by IP address). (

Author AddendumAuthor Addendum

It is a supplementary agreement added to a publishing contract that defines or changes the terms of the original contract and is most often centered on the transfer of copyright ownership. Authors of academic papers may need an author amendment to a publisher's standard publishing agreement to help ensure that authors protect their most important rights, such as the right to deposit their articles online on a personal website or in a repository. digital, the right to use their work in a classroom setting or the right to use their work as a basis for future research. (

Aggregator –aggregator

Metadata aggregator tool from various data providers, making them available in an OAI repository. (

ALMsto seeArticle Metrics


Based on the citation metric, Altmetrics applies complementary metrics and qualitative data to traditional metrics. It may include (but not exclusively) Faculty of 1000 peer review, citations on Wikipedia and public documents, posts on research blogs, bookmarks on reference managers like Mendeley, and comments on social media like Twitter. Its information sources come from the web, so Altmetrics helps to characterize the search, discussion and use of academic communication results or scientific articles. For this reason, Altmetrics, as a subscribed API, has been incorporated into researchers' websites, institutional repositories or scientific journals' websites. Altmetrics can show the impact and influence of research: it is a record of impact, a measure of dissemination and an indicator of influence and impact. Advantages of using Altmetrics: the speed in the process of accumulating citation metrics and the diversified capture of impacts, which goes beyond books and articles. (

APC (Article Processing Charge)

Fee charged to the author, creator or institution in order to cover the costs of an article, rather than burdening the potential reader of the article. The fee can be applied to all types of publications, open access or commercial. Fees are sometimes charged to authors to cover the costs of publishing and disseminating an article in an open access academic journal. (

APIApplication Programming Interface

It provides a mechanism for programmers to enable the functionality of a set of modules without having access to the source code. When it does not require a schedule for licensing or paying royalties it is often described as open. Open APIs have helped Web 2.0 services to develop rapidly. ( | The way computer programs talk to each other. (

Application Programming Interfaceto seeAPI

Article-Level Metricsto seeArticle Metrics

Article in press

Text scientifically validated by authors and reviewers, paginated and edited by the journal editor
and available online, awaiting the definition of the issue of the journal in which it will be published.

Article Processing Chargeto seeAPC

Author's Accepted Versionto seepostprint

Author's Initial Versionto seePreprint


It means making a copy of a manuscript available on a personal website, institutional repository or any type of repository. (

Author -Author

It is the natural person who creates an intellectual work (literary, artistic or scientific). The author is defined by his/her intellectual and/or artistic contribution to the composition of a work; other authors involved are understood as collaborators. A copyright holder is anyone who adapts, translates, arranges or orchestrates a work that is in the public domain. (


Data baseData base

A database is a structure designed for storing and querying large volumes of data. The database is supported by a data model that describes the represented entities, their attributes and the relationships between them. Database models are designed for a domain and considering a set of applications, capturing the relevant entities for these in the domain. (


Quantitative and statistical technique that allows measuring rates of production and dissemination of knowledge, monitoring the development of different scientific areas and patterns of authorship, publication and use of research results. (


The evaluation of scientific production, a key factor for the recognition of researchers by the scientific community, national and international, and funding agencies, is done through the application of various bibliometric indicators. Bibliometric indicators are evaluation tools and can be divided into scientific quality indicators, scientific activity indicators, scientific impact indicators and thematic association indicators. (


Publishing LibraryLibrary-Based Publishing

Many academic libraries are starting to assume the role of publishers of academic works produced in their institutions. In some cases, the library works directly with the institution's own publisher. In other cases, the library publishes independently or separately from the institution's publisher. Publishing libraries are, for the most part, strongly in favor of open access. (

Big data -big data

Compilation of data so large that it cannot be stored, transmitted or processed by traditional means. The increasing availability and need to process these datasets (eg, large temporal or other scientific datasets) has led to the development of specialized computer technologies, architectures and programming languages. (


BOAIto seeBudapest Declaration on Open Access



G8 Open Data CharterG8 Open Data Charter

The principles of the Open Government Data Declaration (Sebastopol, 2007), thought in the context of open government data, are, in principle, applicable to any context with digital information. The expansion of this scope to data from public and private organizations, at an international and multilateral level, led to the signing of the G8 Open Data Charter. ( (

Open Scienceopen science

Knowledge is a greater good, a public good, belonging to all and which everyone should benefit from and be granted. Society in general and the communities associated with the production and curation of knowledge have a responsible and fundamental role in promoting, valuing, disseminating and sharing knowledge. Knowledge belongs to everyone and for everyone. In this sense, the availability of science resulting from public funding is imperative and the open availability of research results carried out using public funding has significant social and economic benefits. (


Open Science is associated with themes such as open access to scientific results, open data, citizen science and open peer review systems. (

Citizen Science –citizen science

The aim is to make ordinary people into real scientists in real scientific research projects. ( ( | Through the computer or the cell phone, science is one step away from the citizen. Doing science is no longer just for scientists, but for everyone who wants to be part of it. (

World Summit on the Information SocietyWorld Summit on Information Society

Sponsored by the United Nations, in December 2003, the Declaration of Principles, entitled "Building the Information Society: a global challenge for the new millennium", reveals the commitment to building an information society centered on people, where everyone can create, access, use and share information and knowledge, enabling individuals, communities and peoples to reach their maximum potential in promoting their sustainable development and improving their quality of life, respecting and sustaining the purposes of the Charter of the United Nations and the Declaration Universal Rights of Man. The text of the Declaration also links access to information and knowledge, as well as its sharing, with the development of peoples, in line with the Millennium Development Goals. (


The act or effect of citing. It is the mention in the text of information extracted from a documentary source that has the purpose of clarifying or substantiating the author's ideas. Brief form of reference placed between parentheses within the text or attached to the text as a footnote, allowing identification of the publication from which the idea, excerpt, etc. were obtained. and indicate its exact location in the font. The source from which the information was extracted must be cited, respecting copyright. (Pericão & Faria, 2008) | Indicate or write down the authors and texts that refer to what is written. Quoting is always a written exercise, something that allows us to verify. Orality does not allow it. Indicate as authority or example. (Lopes, 2013)

Academic CommunicationScholarly Communication

Creation, transformation, dissemination and preservation of knowledge related to teaching, research and academic work, in which teachers and researchers share and publish the results of their work in order to make them available to the entire academic community. (

Knowledge / KnowingKnowledge

The result of the assimilation of information obtained during learning. Knowledge is the set of facts, principles, theories and practices related to an area of study or work. Knowledge can be tacit and explicit. (Ohlsson, 1994)


Tacit knowledge is defined as knowledge (not necessarily expressed or conscious) acquired by the student and which influences the cognitive process. (Polanyi, 1966) | Explicit knowledge corresponds to knowledge that can be consciously mobilized by the student and includes tacit knowledge, made explicit when it becomes an «object of thought». (


Result of the assimilation of information through learning. Knowledge constitutes the collection of facts, principles, theories and practices related to an area of work or study. Under the European Qualifications Framework, knowledge is described as theoretical and/or factual. (

Data set Set Date

Set of related records on a storage device, in which the individual data units are organized or formatted in a specific way, often in the form of a table, and accessible through an access method that is also their own, based on the organization of the set of data. Dice. (


A dataset, or scientific dataset, brings together items of a similar nature that have been collected to serve as the basis for investigation. In scientific data there is a well-established granularity. If the data are interview records, each interview is an item, with its question structure, and the dataset is the set of interviews (not the set of responses to individual questions). The granularity can be obvious, as in the case of a set of photographs, or dependent on the researchers' view of reality, as in a set of botanical data, in which the unit can be the species or specimen of that species that will be studied. . (

Public Data SetPublic Data Set

Set of interrelated data available to the public, safeguarded in a computer system and in accordance with the provisions of the law or with the regulation of a funding agency. (

Crowdsourcing | Process of opening science to public participation. (

Data CurationDate Curation

Data curation designates the set of actions that guarantee that a data set is genuine, allowing its use by others than its producers. Curating can involve data description actions, linking them to others that make them intelligible, recording the uses they have and the results they have given rise to. Curation also involves preservation actions, in which the representation of data and its metadata have to be modified. The actions of curation and data management have some intersection, with management being more independent of content and use. (




Data are final versions of statistical or factual information. They exist in an alphanumeric format translated into a list, table, graph, map or any other non-narrative form that can be digitally disseminated or processed. They are regularly created or maintained by or on behalf of a funding agency. This designation does not include information provided to an agency by other government entities, nor must it include image files such as drawings, maps, photos or scanned copies of original documents, but it must include statistical or factual information about those image files as well as data of the geographic information system. (

Open Dataopen data

Data that can be freely used, reused and redistributed by anyone – subject to, at most, equal attribution and sharing requirements. Most important characteristics: 1) Availability and access: data must be available as a whole and at a reasonable cost of reproduction, preferably downloadable from the Internet. The data must also be available in a modifiable format; 2) Reuse and redistribution: the data must be provided under conditions that allow its reuse and redistribution, including mixing with other datasets; 3) Universal participation: everyone should be able to use, reuse and redistribute – discrimination against fields of activity or against people or groups is not accepted. For example, 'non-commercial' restrictions that prevent commercial use or restrict use for certain purposes (eg, for academic purposes) are not allowed. (  (

BNP Open Data –BNP Open Data

The National Library of Portugal (BNP) provides information and access to the datasets it makes freely available: the entire bibliographic catalog of the BNP, the National Bibliographic Data Base – PORBASE, the Portuguese National Bibliography (since 1931) and the National Library Digital, among others. The data is made available under a CC0 license, so it can be used and reused, without any restrictions, for any purposes, commercial or otherwise. Data and dataset access services do not require any prior registration or authentication. (

Open Government DataOpen Government Data

Open data produced by the Government. These are data compiled in the exercise of institutional powers, such as activities that do not identify people individually or that violate commercial content. Open government data is a subset of public sector information. (

Scientific DataScientific Data

They include all the data and results of scientific research. | Data that are produced in the context of scientific research or that are used in research in some way. This data can be created for scientific processing purposes, as in atmospheric data used for weather forecasting, or data collected from sensors to monitor the condition of a building. There are data that are obtained as a result of the automatic processing of objects (themselves represented as data), such as, for example, the color histograms obtained through the processing of a collection of images. There are also data that are not produced for research and end up being its object, such as the contributions that users of a social network make, in the form of texts or other content, and which end up being used for sociological studies. (

Research DataResearch Data

It is data used in scientific research as primary sources and is commonly accepted in the scientific community as necessary to validate research results. They are retrieved and produced in a wide range of formats: digital spreadsheets, databases, survey results, images or objects. Consulting and using these research data often involves the use of specific computer programs, software, etc. ( | All data used to produce scientific results. (

Portal where information produced by the Public Administration is published and aggregated so that it can be read and reused by any citizen. The main objective of is to promote transparency and highlight the information produced by the Public Administration. The reuse of information is also one of the essential pillars of the creation of, helping in the creation of new tools to provide a new use to the raw data produced by the Public Administration. The data are available in different electronic formats, inserted in a catalog where the search contains several criteria in order to simplify your search. users are a key player in the development of the portal. In the "Participate" section, citizens can leave their idea for a database that is not yet available or indicate applications to be developed taking into account the data already available. In addition, each database can be voted according to the interest of each citizen. This poll will allow new users to quickly understand which datasets are most interesting. (

Acceptance Date for PublicationAccepted Author Manuscript

The time when the author is notified by the journal, conference or similar publishing medium that their work has been subject to scientific review by the journal, conference scientific committee or similar, often through peer review processes; that all required changes resulting from this review process have already been made; that the work is ready to go through the remaining steps necessary for publication purposes, such as text editing and revision (merely spelling) and typographic composition (formatting and style); that from this point on there will be no changes to the content of the work, only changes resulting from text revision, typographical composition and others carried out by the publisher, which do not interfere with the content of the work. (

Formal Publication DateFormal Publication

Date the work is publicly disclosed by the author's chosen publication medium, for example, the publication date of a print journal or, in the case of an online publication medium, the date the work is made available online_cc781905 -5cde-3194-bb3b-136bad5cf58d_by this means, as is the case with online journals, web pages of conferences or other scientific events. (

Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and HumanitiesBerlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities

Signed, on October 22, 2003, by representatives of several of the most important European scientific institutions, including the Max-Planck Society (Germany) and the Center National de la Recherche Scientifique (France). The Declaration supports open access and encourages researchers and grantees to deposit their work in at least one repository. (

Bethesda Declaration on Open AccessBethesda Statement on Open Access Publishing

In April 2003, at the headquarters of the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, various personalities (scientists, editors, librarians, etc.) linked to information in the biomedical area met with the aim of stimulating discussion on how to implement, as quickly as possible, possible, the objective of ensuring free access to scientific literature. The Declaration contains a definition of Open Access, as well as conclusions and recommendations of working groups on R&D funding bodies and institutions, Libraries and publishers, scientific societies and researchers. (

Budapest Declaration on Open Access –Budapest Open Access Initiative (BOAI)

Important initiative of the Open Access to Knowledge movement, resulting from the meeting in Budapest, at the end of 2001, promoted by the Open Society Institute. The approved declaration established the meaning and scope of open access, in addition to defining two complementary strategies for its promotion: the green road and the golden road. (

Open Government Data StatementOpen Government Data Statement

Open data was defined in a set of principles established at a meeting held in December 2007 in Sebastopol (California). The focus of the meeting was the disclosure of government information. However, in the following years, the concept was expanded to include scientific data, even from private organizations. Its principles establish that any data, in order to be "open", must be able to be used by anyone and for any purpose. This definition is intended to guide the process of opening data so that it can be considered "open". (

Declaration of HelsinkiHelsinki Declaration

Statement of ethical principles, dated 1964 and revised over the years, for clinical research involving human beings, including research on identifiable human data and material. Medical research on human beings must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on knowledge from the scientific literature and other relevant sources of information, on laboratory and, where appropriate, animal experimentation. The welfare of animals used for research must also be respected. (

Kronberg DeclarationKronberg Declaration on the Future of Knowledge Acquisition and Sharing

In June 2007, UNESCO launches the final version of the Kronberg Declaration on the Future of Knowledge Acquisition and Sharing, which anticipates that: a) knowledge acquisition and sharing will be increasingly mediated by technologies; b) knowledge will be increasingly closer to social development and emotional skills and training, expanding the concept of education; c) the importance of the factual acquisition of knowledge will be gradually diminished, while the ability to search paths in complex systems, search, evaluate and organize information; d) the new role of the teacher, not as an instructor, but as a facilitator and tutor; and e) students will play an increasingly active role in acquiring, sharing, creating content and disseminating knowledge. (

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Researchto seeDRIVER

Directory of Open Access Journalsto seeDOAJ


Copyrights belong to the intellectual creator of the work, unless expressly provided otherwise, and are recognized regardless of registration, filing or any other formality. Works are considered to be intellectual creations in the literary, scientific and artistic domain, whatever their genre, form of expression, merit, mode of communication and purpose, externalized in any way, which, as such, are protected under the terms of the law, including in this protection the rights of the respective authors. The author has patrimonial rights and personal rights, called moral rights. In the exercise of patrimonial rights, the author has the exclusive power to dispose of his work and enjoy and use it, or authorize its enjoyment or use by a third party (with the exceptions referred to in free use), total or partially. Regardless of economic rights, and even after their transmission or extinction, the author enjoys moral rights over the work, namely the right to claim authorship and ensure its authenticity and integrity. (

DOAB -Directory of Open Access Books

DOAB is a service of the OAPEN Foundation, an international project dedicated to publishing open access books, whose objective is to increase the discovery of open access books. Academic publishers are invited to provide the metadata of their published books in open access to DOAB. Metadata is retrieved in order to maximize dissemination, visibility and impact. Aggregators can integrate records into databases and libraries can also integrate the directory into their online catalogues, making DOAB more dynamic among their academic communities. The DIAB is open to all publishers publishing open access, peer-reviewed books. (

DOAJDirectory of Open Access Journals

Open access indexing directory that indexes peer-reviewed journals. (

DRIVERDigital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research

Project promoted by a consortium financed by the European Union. Objective: the constitution of an organizational and technological structure for the implementation of pan-European data in order to allow the advanced use of content resources in the area of research in higher education. DRIVER II developed a service infrastructure and a data infrastructure. Both were conceived to instrument the existing resources and services in the repositories network. This project resulted in several studies on the state of the art with regard to digital repositories, which had as their high point the DRIVER Guidelines that aim to enable greater interoperability of data and service providers. The DRIVER Guidelines for content providers provide information and aim to: a) support repository managers in exposing textual resources with the OAI-PMH protocol in an interoperable way; b) provide guidance for managers of new repositories to define their local data management policies; c) guide managers, of existing repositories, in the decision of measures with a view to improving the services provided; and d) support developers of repositories platforms in the creation and support of new functionalities. (

Double Paymentdouble dipping

In the context of open access, double charging occurs when a journal makes an article available under an APC regime to publish an author's work and, at the same time, requires payment from the potential user of the work (usually through a subscription fee). This model makes the institution or the author pay twice to access the work. (



Early articleto seeArticle in press

early previewto seeArticle in press


eScience is one of the areas of action with increasing relevance for policies and governance models for Science and Innovation. The Foundation for Science and Technology has dedicated special attention to promoting the potential of ICT tools for Research and Development activities, not only supporting and offering ICT infrastructure and services to support the scientific system, but also promoting the production, integration and dissemination of open access content. (

Publishing companyPublisher

Company with the aim of making the results of the investigation publicly available. (


Digital version of a peer-reviewed scientific article, before or after evaluation and publication. (


Free software for implementing digital repositories. (

European Cloud Initiative

The project, which aims to build a competitive data and knowledge economy in Europe, aims to strengthen Europe's position in data-driven innovation, improve cohesion and competitiveness and help create a digital single market in Europe. This initiative will provide European science, industry and public authorities with the storage and management of a worldwide data infrastructure; high-speed connectivity for data transport; and increasingly powerful computers for data processing. The project will make it easier for researchers, companies and public services to explore the benefits of Big Data, enabling and facilitating the movement, sharing and reuse of data between markets and between research organisations. Competitiveness will increase when research data becomes openly available, especially for start-ups, SMEs and for companies that can use the data as a basis for innovation and R&D, and can also contribute to stimulating new industries. (



Facilitate Open Science Training for European Researchto seeFOSTER

File Format –File Format

The description of how a file is represented on a computer disk. The format usually corresponds to the last part of the file name (extension); for example, a file in CSV format can be called schools-list.csv. File format refers to the file's internal format, not how it is presented to users. CSV and XLS files, for example, are structured very differently on disk, but can look similar or identical when opened in a program such as Excel. (

FOSTER(Facilitate Open Science Training for European Research)

The FOSTER portal is an e-learning platform that brings together the best training resources for those interested in Open Science or for those who need to develop strategies and skills to implement open science practices in their daily workflows. The FOSTER project is about two years old, funded by the European Union and developed by thirteen partners from eight countries. The main objective is to produce a European-wide training program that helps researchers, postgraduate students, librarians and other stakeholders ​in incorporating open access into their research methodologies. Other objectives: to support interested parties, especially young researchers, in the adoption of open access in the European research context and in compliance with the open access policies and participation rules established for Horizon 2020; strengthen the capacity of institutional training in promoting compliance with open access policies in the European research space and in the context of Horizon 2020 (in addition to the FOSTER project); facilitate the adoption, reinforcement and implementation of open access policies by other European funders, in line with the recommendations of the European Union and in partnership with the PASTEUR4OA project. (




Horizon 2020Horizon 2020

Horizon 2020 – Community Framework Program for Research & Innovation, with a global budget of more than 77 billion euros for the period 2014-2020, is the largest instrument of the European Community specifically aimed at supporting research, through the co-financing of research, innovation and demonstration projects. Financial support is granted on the basis of calls for tenders and through an independent evaluation process of the submitted proposals. H2020 comprises three programmatic pillars with different scopes: Pillar I – Scientific Excellence (about 32% of the total budget); Pillar II – Industrial Leadership (corresponding to around 22% of the budget); Pillar III – Societal Challenges (about 39% of the total budget). In addition to these three pillars, there are other instruments that represent, in total, around 6% of the H2020 budget. Additionally, the EURATOM programme, aimed at activities in the area of nuclear energy, has a budget, within the scope of H2020, of 2.37 million euros for the period from 2014 to 2020. (


Horizon 2020 has the political backing of European leaders and members of the European Parliament. They decided that investment in research and innovation is crucial for Europe's future and thus placed it at the heart of the Europe 2020 strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. Horizon 2020 contributes to this objective, combining research and innovation and based on the three pillars of scientific excellence, industrial leadership and societal challenges. The aim is to ensure that Europe produces world-class science and technology that are capable of sustaining economic growth. (




It is, nowadays, an economic product that gives name to a society. | They are data to which we attribute meaning within a given context. When information is incorporated intellectually by the subject and has an impact on his action, it becomes knowledge. (


Information is any collection of data that is processed, analysed, interpreted, classified or communicated in order to serve a useful purpose, present facts or represent knowledge in any medium or form. This includes presentation in electronic (digital), printed, audio, video, image, graphic, cartographic, textual or numerical format. (

Scientific and Technical InformationScientific and Technical Information

It comprises the total amount of information produced by research necessary for scientific and industrial activity. By its nature, scientific and technical information covers all scientific and technical sectors and multiple formats: articles, reviews and scientific books, technical procedures, technical documentation, patents, bibliographic databases, gray literature, databases, open files, inaccessible data repositories on the Internet, portals, etc. (

Application Programming Interfaceto seeAPI


The ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (interoperate). In this case, it's the ability to interoperate – or intermix – different sets of data. Interoperability is important because it allows different components to work together. (

Public InvestigationPublic Research

Research carried out in the public sector, including public institutions of higher education, public research institutions, public health institutions and public companies. (

Open Replicable Research –Open Reproducible Research

In 2014, the National Institutes of Health (NIH),  the Nature Publishing Group, Science, and editors of more than 30 scientific journals established and subscribed to the Principles and Guidelines for Reporting Preclinical Research ( Other initiatives emerged, before and after, adapted to different scientific areas, but the following stand out: rigorous statistical analysis, transparency in reporting the data obtained, sharing data and materials and considering possible answers and/or refutation of the investigation.







Creative Commons LicenseCreative Commons License

The Creative Commons Licenses allow to expand the quantity of works freely available and stimulate the creation of new works based on the originals, in an effective and very flexible way, using a set of of standard licenses that guarantee protection and freedom with some rights reserved. The Creative Commons Licenses sit between copyright (all rights reserved) and public domain (no rights reserved). They are worldwide in scope, perpetual and free of charge. Through Creative Commons Licenses,  the author of a work defines the conditions under which that work is shared, proactively and constructively, with third parties, all licenses require that credit be given to the author of the work, as specified by him. (

CC-BY license (attribution)to seeCC Attribution License (BY)

CC Attribution License (BY)License CC Attribution (BY)

This is the most permissive license in the range of options. Under the terms of this license, the use of the work is free, and users may make commercial use of it or create derivative works based on the original work. It is only essential that due credit is given to its author. (

Share Alike (SA) CC LicenseLicense CC ShareAlike (SA)

When an author chooses to grant this license, he intends not only to be given credit for the creation of his work, but also that works derived from it are licensed under the same terms as his own work. This license is often compared to free software licenses. (

CC Non-Commercial Use License (NC)License CC NonCommercial (NC)

In accordance with this license, the author allows a wide use of his work (reuse and share), limited, however, by the impossibility of obtaining a commercial advantage through such use. It is also essential that due credit is given to the author of the original work. (

CC Non-Commercial Use and Prohibited Derivative Works License (NC-ND)Llicense CC Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (NC-ND)

This is the least permissive license of the range of options offered to the author, allowing only redistribution. By adopting this license, not only is commercial use prohibited, but derivative works are also prohibited. Given its nature, this license is often referred to as a “free advertising” license. (

CC-NC Licenseto seeCC Non-Commercial Use License (NC)

License CC-NC-NDto seeCC Non-Commercial Use and Works Prohibition LicenseDerivatives (NC-ND)

CC-ND license (no derivations)to see CC License No Derivatives (ND)

CC-SA Licenseto seeShare Alike (SA) CC License

CC License No Derivatives (ND)License CC No Derivatives (ND)

This license permits redistribution, commercial or non-commercial, as long as the work is used unaltered and in its entirety. It is also essential that due credit is given to the author of the original work. (

CC0 LicenseLicense CC0

CC0 allows scientists, researchers, artists and other creators and owners of copyrighted content to relinquish those rights and thereby place them in the public domain, so that others can enjoy, reuse and improve them for any purpose and unrestricted under copyright law. (



Deposit MandateMandate

Policy owned by an organization, mandatory and compliant with the open access policy. (



Magazine with editorial criteria based on scientific solidity, rather than criteria based on newsworthiness or scientific impact. (


It literally means data on data. These are data associated with objects or information systems for purposes of description, administration, use, preservation, etc. They can be classified as descriptive (used for identification and location), administrative (for creation, identification of rights, access control, etc.) and structural (to relate digital objects). (


Article MetricsArticle-Level Metrics (ALMs)

It provides a measure of the impact and reach of articles – from views and file downloads to social media – even before the first citation occurs. Tracks access, use, and reuse of research results – from articles to datasets – to help understand a work's influence on the scientific community. (

Alternative Metricsto seeAltmetrics

Author Payment ModelThe “author pays” Model

Applicable model when the authors, or their institutions or the sources of their research funding, pay the editors the costs of processing the articles in open access and free for any reader. It is an alternative to reader and funder paid models. (

Reader Payment ModelThe “reader pays” Model

Traditional model in the publishing market, which works by subscription. Readers only have access to journals and books for which they, or more often their institution, have purchased a subscription from one or more publishers. It is an alternative to author and funder paid templates. (

Open Movement –open movement

The open movement seeks to work towards solving many of the world's most pressing problems in a spirit of transparency, collaboration, reuse and free access. It encompasses open data, open government, open development, open science, and more. Participation processes, sharing knowledge and research results, as well as the use of open source software are among its main tools. (


Open Access Movement –Open Access Movement

Designates the set of initiatives undertaken to make research results available, without access restrictions, either through self-archiving or through publication in open access scientific journals. (


Not yet publishedto seeArticle in press



OAIOpen Archives Initiative

It was launched in 1999 and created under a simple platform, in order to allow the interoperability and search of scientific publications from different disciplines. This initiative emerged within the eprints community and was based on an essentially technical approach (which resulted in the OAI-PMH protocol), without much philosophical concern. But, by providing a stable base for the interoperability of open files, and given the growing number of servers that implement it, it contributes to give greater visibility and encouragement to the Open Access to Knowledge movement. (


Non-profit consortium that promotes the development, convergence and adoption of open standards for the Information Society. Promotes industry consensus and develops worldwide security standards for the Internet of Things, cloud computing, energy, information technologies, and more. OASIS standards offer the potential to reduce costs, spur innovation, grow global markets, and more. OASIS members broadly represent the public and private market for technologies. The consortium has over 5,000 participants, representing over 600 organizations and individual members in over 65 countries. (

online firstto seeArticle in press

Open Access Infrastructure for Research in Europeto see OpenAIRE

Open Source –open source

Software whose source code is available under an open license. Not only can the software be used for free, but its users, with the appropriate technical skills, can view the source code, modify it and run their own version of the code, in order to correct errors, develop new features, etc. Big open source software manages to have thousands of volunteer contributors. The Open Definition is clearly based on the earlier Open Source Definition, which defines the conditions under which software can be considered open source. (

OpenAIREOpen Access Infrastructure for Research in Europe

Pan-European infrastructure supporting the European Union's Open Access Mandate under Horizon 2020. All publications funded by the European Union must be made available in Open Access and on the OpenAIRE portal, in one of its data sources, such as repositories and open access publishers. (

Open Archives Initiativeto seeOAI

overlay journals

Open access electronic journal that does not produce its own content, but selects and preserves sets of articles that are already freely available online (eg, Epijournal). (




The joint use of a resource or space – a fundamental aspect of collaborative research. As most research is authorized and published in digital format, the resulting digital content is considered non-competitive and may be shared without harm to the original creator. (


Legal contract that protects inventions such as products, processes or devices. To be patentable, an invention must be new, have an industrial application and must involve an inventive step. (

peer review

Peer review is the process of evaluating and certifying the quality of research and its results. Articles from the main scientific journals are subject to this evaluation and review process before being published. (

Embargo PeriodEmbargo Period

It is the time described in the contract between the author and the publisher that establishes the exclusive rights to use the work and prevents the author from depositing his work in digital format in open access during this period. (


Use of a text or passage without mentioning its author and presenting them as if they were authored by the person using them. (Estrela, Soares, & Leitão, 2006) | Literary, scientific or artistic theft. Servile copying of someone else's work, a practice that is highly reprehensible and wrong from an ethical point of view. Citing the source of information is essential, especially in the scientific, technical and journalistic universe. (Pericão & Faria, 2008) | Subscribing or presenting as your own, wholly or partially modifying it, an artistic or literary work of another. (Lopes, 2013)

PLoS (Public Library of Science)

Started in 2001, this is a non-profit project with the objective of creating a library of scientific journals and related publications within the open access licensing model, using Creative Commons Licenses for this purpose. (

FCT Open Access PolicyFCT Open Access Policy

Binding document that establishes the rules to be observed by researchers in the context of scientific publication resulting from research financed, in whole or in part, by the Foundation for Science and Technology (FCT). The Policy determines that these publications must be deposited in repositories, in their entirety, to allow free access and without costs or content restrictions to any user. They include rules and recommendations for free and online access to peer-reviewed publications and data resulting from scientific research funded by FCT. The Policy came into effect on May 5, 2014. Essentially, the Policy on Open Access to scientific publications resulting from research financed by FCT determines that publications of scientific results, which are subject to peer review or other form of review scientific research, should be deposited in one of the RCAAP open access repositories as soon as possible, preferably by the time of publication acceptance. An embargo period is permitted, after which all content in publications must be freely available. The Policy applies to articles in scientific journals, conference proceedings, posters, books and book chapters, monographs, master's dissertations and doctoral theses. (

post pressto seepostprint


Draft manuscript after peer review. (


It is the digital text of an article evaluated, reviewed (peer-reviewed) and accepted for publication by a scientific journal. Includes author's final digital draft, reviewed and accepted; the publisher's revised and corrected version, usually in PDF; and any subsequent revisions, with corrections from the final peer-reviewed draft. (


Post-print (or post-publication) is the final version of a manuscript produced by one or more authors, after peer review, with changes suggested by peers, but without the editor's formatting. (


The version of the work, which contains all changes arising from the scientific validation processes, including those resulting from peer review processes and/or those of an academic nature required by the journal editor, scientific committee of the conference or equivalent, and which is agreed between the author and the editor as the version that will be published, but before being submitted to text revision and typographic composition, is what is designated, within the scope of the Open Access Policy, as the author's final version. (

prepressto seePreprint


Draft of a manuscript that has not yet been subject to formal peer review and that is previously released to obtain comments and suggestions from peers. (


It is the digital text of an article that has not yet been evaluated and reviewed (peer-reviewed) and has not yet been accepted for publication in a scientific journal. (


Pre-print (or pre-publication) means any version of a text produced by one or more authors prior to acceptance by an Editorial Board and possibly peer review. (

Preservation –Preservation

Generic term that designates the set of measures to be taken to guarantee the preservation of the integrity of documents and their contents, to maintain electronic access and to ensure the legibility and perpetuity of their contents over a long period of time. (

Panton Principles for Open Data in SciencePanton Principles for Open Data in Science

Far beyond the Berlin Declaration, the principles of the Pantom Declaration (February 2010) focus on the licensing of content that clearly guarantees the sharing, distribution, reuse and production of derivative works, in accordance with the motto "sharing and reuse" of data by the scientific community. Science is based on knowledge construction, reuse and open criticism of scientific knowledge. For science to be effective and for society to reap the benefit of science, it is crucial that scientific data be disseminated openly. Open data in science is an expression that means that it is freely available on the Internet, in order to allow any user to download, copy, analyze, transfer to suitable software or reuse for any other purpose, without financial, legal or technical restrictions. This objective implies that science-related data should be explicitly placed in the public domain. (

OECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research DataOECD Principles and Guidelines for Access to Research Data

In 2007, the OECD published OECD principles and guidelines for access to research data from public funding, a document that defends the promotion of a culture of openness and sharing of research data, encouraging sharing and raising awareness of the costs and benefits of possible restrictions and limitations on accessing and sharing publicly funded research data. (

Text and Data Processingto seeText and Data Mining


The Blimunda Project's main objectives are to survey the policies of national publishers and scientific journals in relation to self-archiving in institutional repositories and register them in the international database SHERPA/RoMEO. Within the scope of the Blimunda project, translation of the SHERPA/RoMEO project website into Portuguese has also been carried out and some communication and dissemination actions have been carried out, with a view to raising awareness of open access among those responsible for publishers and scientific journals. (

Public Library of Scienceto seePLoS


Public disclosure of research results. Generically refers to the dissemination of works by publishers, regardless of the granting of public access. (

Electronic Publishing – Epub | Publication in electronic document format.





RCAAP (Portuguese Open Access Scientific Repository)

The RCAAP Portal is the central component of the Open Access Scientific Repository of Portugal project and aims to collect, aggregate and index scientific content in open access (or free access) existing in the institutional repositories of national higher education entities and other organizations of R&D. In 2010, the RCAAP Portal began to aggregate the scientific content produced in Brazil made available from the aggregator maintained by the Brazilian Institute of Information in Science and Technology (IBICT). Thus, the Portal constitutes a single point of research, discovery, location and access to thousands of documents of a scientific and academic nature, namely articles from scientific journals, conference papers, theses and dissertations, distributed by the repositories that make up the network. , whether national or Brazilian. For the aggregation of repositories on the RCAAP Portal to be possible, it is necessary that they satisfy the respective aggregation conditions. In order to facilitate compliance with the aggregation requirements of the RCAAP Portal, a repository validator was developed. The validator is a tool to support the management of repositories that allows checking the degree of conformity of a repository with the guidelines defined for the project, which derive from the DRIVER Guidelines. (

National Registry of Theses and Dissertationsto seeRENATES

Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policiesto seeROAMAP

RENATES (National Register of Theses and Dissertations)

The RENATES platform allows the collection of data relating to doctoral theses and works and master's dissertations and works, namely ongoing doctorates, doctorates carried out in Portugal, equivalences awarded by Portuguese universities, as well as completed master's degrees. RENATES is aimed at public and private Portuguese higher education establishments that award a doctoral and/or master's degree, and has been available since December 1, 2015. With RENATES it is intended to support a thesis database of doctorates, as well as dissertations and completed master's work, thus respecting the provisions of Ordinance No. 285/2015, of 15 September. (


The online platform aims to facilitate cooperation between the entities involved and aims to contribute to the recognition of the scientific community, as well as to provide more complete and current information, responding to requests from national bodies. (


The similarity between the results of a study or trial and independent results obtained with the same methods and under identical conditions (ie, refers to methods and analysis). (


A file for depositing originals. These can be personal or institutional (eg, ResearchGate, or arXiv). (

Portuguese Open Access Scientific Repositoryto seeRCAAP

RCAAP Common Repository

The Common Repository is a service derived from SARI, aimed at researchers affiliated with institutions of the national scientific system (namely, public or private research centres, universities, polytechnic institutes) that do not have their own institutional repository. Through the Common Repository, these researchers now have a place where they can archive and make accessible their scientific production (published articles, communications accepted and published in conferences, approved theses and dissertations). Adherence to the Common Repository is carried out by the institution. Once the accession has been processed, the institution is responsible for managing the section of the Common Repository assigned to it, regulating the admission of authors and deposits. The presence of institutions in the Common Repository can constitute the future basis of a repository of its own. Like the other repositories, the Common Repository is indexed by the RCAAP portal. (

Institutional RepositoryInstitutional Repository

Information system to store, preserve and disseminate the intellectual production of institutions (eg, a university institution). It can be created and maintained individually or by groups of institutions working on a corporate basis. ( | Database created to compile the intellectual production of an institution or a university, including digital collections, such as electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) or pre-reviewed manuscripts, presenting associated metadata. ( (


Similarity between the results of a study or trial and independent results obtained with the same methods but under different conditions (ie, refers to the results). (

Research ResultsResearch Results

Any scientific data or texts generated in the research process, as well as other elements based on research data. These research results may have been published (published results) or not (unpublished results). (

Public Investigation ResultsResults of Public Research

Results generated by research carried out with public funds or public funding equal to or greater than 50%. (


Compilation of research articles. Traditionally it is divided into volumes and numbers. (

Collective magazineto seeoverlay journals

Open Access Magazineopen access journal

Journal that exclusively publishes articles in open access. (

Hybrid MagazineHybrid Journal

Some mainstream journals offer authors, for an additional fee, the option of making their articles universally available free of charge. Other articles in the same journal remain accessible only by subscription. These journals are known as «hybrid journals». ( (

ROARMAP (Registry of Open Access Repository Mandates and Policies)

Searchable international registry, which analyzes the growth of open access mandates and policies adopted by universities, research institutions and funders, which require researchers to provide free access to the results of their peer-reviewed research and deposit them in an open access repository. (



Knowto seeKnowledge SARC (Scientific Journal Hosting Service)

SARC was created to develop the online publication of scientific journals in Portugal, facilitating the management of scientific journals and supporting best practices. The service is based on the publishing and publication management platform OJS – Open Journal System, an open source system with a wide user community and a strong impact in the field of open access. This service, made available under the RCAAP project, is provided on a SaaS basis (Software as a Service) and all updating, monitoring, backups and security activities are carried out. In addition to the technical aspects, a support service is also provided for the magazine's editor, as well as the training necessary for using the system. (

SARDC (Scientific Data Repository Hosting Service)

SARDC intends to provide a platform for free access to data created and used within the scope of research work by institutions nationwide. It is characterized by the provision of a repositories platform (DSpace) and support for the entire data maintenance component, such as backups, monitoring, updating, security, etc., thus exempting researchers from worrying about these tasks. This integrated service is supported by the initial implementation of the repository, namely in defining the structure of the repository and adapting the deposit form to specific metadata schemes. The SARDC service intends to make available the data deposited in the repository through the RCAAP Portal. The service is available at:

SARI (Institutional Repository Hosting Service)

SARI is intended to be used by any of the institutions of the scientific and higher education system to host its repository with individualization of its own corporate identity. In addition to customizing the image of the repository, each institution can also define and implement the settings and parameters it deems appropriate for its organizational structure and its policies for self-archiving publications and managing the repository. The repositories made available under this regime are automatically indexed on the RCAAP Portal. SARI is provided on a SaaS basis (Software as a Service), that is, it is based on RCAAP infrastructure (hardware, hosting, connectivity, base systems, applications, perimeter security, backup service, monitoring and alarming), whose management and operation is done by the project team. (

SCEUR (Central Service for Repository Usage Statistics)

Centralized system that allows aggregating and presenting statistical data on the use of institutional repositories that are part of the RCAAP project. This service aims to monitor the use of the repositories, allowing comparisons to be made between the various resources and providing rankings and statistical information on the content of the repositories. The service is available athttp://sceur.rcaap.ptand provides data from repositories with the necessary technical requirements. (

SciELOScientific Electronic Library Online

Created in 1998, in Brazil, based on a pilot project in partnership with FAPESP and the Latin American and Caribbean Center on Health Sciences Information (BIREME/PAHO/WHO), the SciELO Platform was guided by two pioneering and innovative approaches: the indexing of quality national journals to complement international indexes and the publication of full texts with open access, on the Internet, in the Via Dourada modality; and the cooperative convergence of independent publishers, publishers and national research agencies around the common goal of increasing the quality and visibility of scientific journals. Over the years, the SciELO Platform has assumed a quality standard for the journals it indexes. It includes fourteen Ibero-American countries, which South Africa joined more recently, each of which publishes a collection of national journals on the network. There are also two multinational themed collections on the Platform. In total, around 1,000 journal titles are indexed, with more than 40,000 articles published per year. The Platform has already published more than 400,000 open access articles, with a daily average of more than 1.5 million article downloads, 65% of which are in PDF and 35% in HTML. The SciELO Platform is the largest provider of DOAJ journals. Likewise, most Latin American journals indexed by Web of Science and Scopus are open access and SciELO. (

Scientific Electronic Library Onlineto seeSciELO

Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access/Rights of MEtadata for Open archiving seeSHERPA-RoMEO


Over the last few years there has been a growing interest in the development of new research evaluation methods that go beyond traditional citation-based metrics. This interest is motivated, on the one hand, by greater availability or even by the appearance of new data that demonstrate the performance of the investigation, such as the download of articles, the number of views and comments on Twitter and, on the other hand, by the problems related to the simple application of citation metrics in evaluating research performance. (


This is a new class of metrics for evaluating research. Unlike bibliometrics, webometrics, Altmetrics, etc., semantometrics is not based on measuring the number of interactions in the academic communication network; it is based on the premise that the full text is needed to assess the value of a publication. Semantic similarity measures can be used to provide data on the contribution of research papers not retrieved by traditional impact factors based purely on citations. (

Centralized Service for Repository Usage Statisticsto seeSCEUR

Hosting Service for Scientific Data Repositoriesto seeSARDC

Hosting Service for Scientific Journalsto seeSARC

SHERPA/RoMEO (Securing a Hybrid Environment for Research Preservation and Access/Rights of MEtadata for Open archiving)

Tool that checks self-archiving policies for scientific journals. (

Shibboleth System

It eliminates the need for usernames and access passwords, allowing institutions to limit access to information, while directing and protecting it, in remote access, to approved users. (


Form of business model in which a fee is paid in order to gain access to a product or service (eg, academic and scientific publications). (



Article Processing Feeto seeAPC

Publication feeto seeAPC

TDMto seeText and Data Mining

Text and Data Mining (TDM)

Technique that involves the automated processing of knowledge. (




Author Approved Versionto seepostprint

Publisher VersionPublisher's Version

It is the final, published version of a manuscript written by one or more authors, after peer review and editor formatting. (


The version that is published, being identical to the author's final version, with regard to content, but having undergone changes resulting from text revision and typographic composition (style formatting according to the publication medium in which it appears) . It is the version that is designated within the scope of the Policy as the publisher version. (

Final versionVersion of Record (VOR)

Final version of a manuscript, after peer review and processing by the publisher. (

Author's Original Versionto seePreprint

via diamondDiamond OA

Form of access via the golden way in which author fees (APC) are not included. (

Via DoradaGold OA

Via Dourada refers to the production and dissemination of electronic scientific journal articles with free access on the Internet, with no restrictions on access or use. ( | The final version of the manuscript is freely available immediately after publication by the editor. (

Green WayGreen OA

Via Verde means the creation of free access institutional repositories for the organization and dissemination of scientific production. It is a green light from copyright holders for the archive of scientific production, both pre-publications (preprints), evaluated or not by peers, and post-publications (postprints), in a complementary process to publication in scientific journals. (

Visibility –Visibility

The visibility of a work depends on its ability to become visible and its wide dissemination, reaching the greatest number of people in order to increase its impact and the author's notoriety. (

VORto seeFinal version




The web ranking or webometrics is the largest academic ranking of higher education institutions. Every six months, since 2004, the Cybermetrics Lab (of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas – CSIC, the largest public research organization in Spain) carries out an independent, objective, scientific and open analysis, guaranteeing the provision of reliable, multidimensional, updated and useful information on the performance of universities around the world based on their presence and impact on the Internet. The aim is not to evaluate websites, their design or usability or the popularity of their contents according to the number of visits. The web indicators are considered for a correct and comprehensive assessment of the overall performance of the higher education institution, considering its activities and results, as well as its relevance and impact. (








Zenodo manages and operates a simple and innovative service that allows researchers and scientists to share the institutional projects of the European Union, preserve and present multidisciplinary research results (data and publications) that are not part of the institutional or thematic repositories of the scientific communities. Zenodo makes it easy to share the most specific research results across a wide range of formats including text, spreadsheets, audio, video and images across all fields of science; present research results and obtain feedback, making these results citable and integrating them into potential funding lines, such as those from the European Commission; it also allows easy access and reuse of research results shared by other researchers. (

printed references
Estrela, E., Soares, MA, & Leitão, MJ (2006). Knowing how to write a thesis and other writings. Lisbon: Don Quixote.

Lopez, CA (2013).How to make citations and references for presentation of scientific papers? Practical application of the APA regulations(2010, 6th edition). Lisbon: Superior Institute of Applied Psychology.

Ohlsson, S. (1994). Declarative and procedural knowledge. In TN Postlethwaite, & T. Husen (Eds.),The International Encyclopedia of Education(Vol. 3, pp. 1432-1434). Oxford: Pergamon.
Pericão, MG, & Faria, MI (2008). Book dictionary: From writing to electronic book. Coimbra: Almedina.

Polanyi, M. (1966).The tacit dimension. London: Routledge.

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